Definition and background:
Second entry of the subject in a fugue, usually pitched a fourth below or a fifth above the original subject. If the theme is altered slightly in the answer, then it is said to be a 'tonal' answer, if it is entirely unaltered, it is said to be a 'real' answer. a musical phrase appearing to respond to another, particularly in a fugue, where the first entry of the main theme is called the subject and the second is called the answer
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Wikipedia - Glossary of Musical Terminology
Virginia Tech Multimedia Music Dictionary
ORB -- Medieval Music Glossary