Definition and background:
An early form of harmony used in the Medieval era (c. 1000-1200) which developed from organum. The descant was formed by adding a part or parts to the tenor, differing from organum in that the parts moved not only in parallel motion but also in oblique and contrary motion. In descant, all the voices move at approximately the same speed. The treble or soprano voice. The soprano instrument in a family (i.e., the descant viol and the descant recorder). (1) soprano or tenor voice (2) the melodic line or counterpoint accompanying an existing melody (3) the upper part of a polyphonic composition
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Wikipedia - Glossary of Musical Terminology
Virginia Tech Multimedia Music Dictionary
ORB -- Medieval Music Glossary