Definition and background:
Aerophone, Brass instrument, Conical bore; The concertmaster Sommer of Weimar designed the euphonium in 1843, which was a wide-bored valved bugle in the baritone range. This instrument was then called the Euphonion. A brass instrument of the tuba family, smaller and higher in pitch than a tuba, with a range of B-flat below the bass clef to B-flat in the treble clef. This instrument is mostly used in concert bands and military bands. The euphonium has taken the place of Richard Wagner's tenor tuba. All of the music originally written for the tenor tuba is now typically performed on the euphonium. The euphonium is constructed in the way that it looks like a miniature tuba. It contains a conical bore and a flared bell, with four valves. Sound is produced with the euphonium by the performer vibrating his/her lips against the mouthpiece. A very mellow and smooth tone is produced from the instrument without the pitch problems that occurred and plagued the Wagner tubas, but the euphonium is only used to replace the tenor tuba. The euphoniums range is the same as the bass trombone starting in the bass clef ranging from B b1 below the bass clef to b b1 above the bass clef. The euphonium is also a non-transposing instrument.
Tenor tuba or bass saxhorn pitched in 9-ft B-flat (sometimes 8-ft C) with three or four valves, sometimes five; with wider bore than the baritone saxhorn of the same pitch
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Wikipedia - Glossary of Musical Terminology
Virginia Tech Multimedia Music Dictionary
ORB -- Medieval Music Glossary