Definition and background:
A symbol located at the beginning of a staff to indicate the pitches of the notes placed on the lines and spaces of the staff. The G clef is so named because the symbol is a stylized letter "G" that encircles the line of the staff, indicating where the " g" above middle C ( g1) is located. The two G clefs still recognized today are the treble clef (with the second line of the staff being g 1) and the rarely used French violin clef (with the first line of the staff being g 1). Also [Fr.] Clef de sol, [Ger.] G-Schlussel, [It.] Chiave di violino. G clefs: treble clef; French violin clef. (Treble Clef) The centre of the spiral defines the line or space upon which it rests as the pitch G above middle C, or approximately 392 Hz. Positioned here, it assigns G above middle C to the second line from the bottom of the staff, and is referred to as the "treble clef." This is the most commonly encountered clef in modern notation, and is used for most modern vocal music. A clef that indicates which line represents g on a staff, as opposed to a c clef, or an f clef.
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Wikipedia - Glossary of Musical Terminology
Virginia Tech Multimedia Music Dictionary
ORB -- Medieval Music Glossary