Definition and background:
The position of a chord when the fundamental is not the lowest note. When the lowest note is the fundamental, the chord is said to be in root position. When the third of the chord is in the lowest voice of the music, the chord is a "first inversion", when the fifth of the chord is in the lowest voice, the chord is said to be a "second inversion". The complement of an interval. Within an octave, the inversion of a second is a seventh, the inversion of a third is a sixth, the inversion of a fourth is a fifth. The mirroring of a tune about a fixed note. This is to say, the imitation of the melody performed upside-down from the original. This is used in Medieval and Renaissance counterpoint, in Baroque fugues, and in 20th century twelve-tone music.The rearrangement of the notes in a chord. Also the turning upside down of a theme, as in serial music jam session. An informal performance of musicians, involving a degree of improvisation. Jam sessions also serve as training sessions for young musicians. Common in jazz, also pop and folk music.
Structuring a chord with a note other than the root as the lowest note
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Wikipedia - Glossary of Musical Terminology
Virginia Tech Multimedia Music Dictionary
ORB -- Medieval Music Glossary