Definition and background:
Term for instruments such as the organ, piano, clavichord, harpsichord, etc. which are sounded through the use of a set of keys. These keys are laid out in such a way that the white keys are the keys of the C major scale, and all the semitones in the chromatic scale not represented by the white keys are produced through depressing the black keys.
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Wikipedia - Glossary of Musical Terminology
Virginia Tech Multimedia Music Dictionary
ORB -- Medieval Music Glossary