Definition and background:
A small flute that sounds an octave above the regular flute and an octave above its written music. The piccolo today is commonly pitched in "C" but the "D- flat" piccolo was common through the 1950's. The range of the "C" piccolo is d 2 to c 5.A name for an instrument of particularly high range, such as the piccolo trumpet.Is the small flute, pitched an octave higher than the ordinary flute. Adjectivally the word may be applied to other instruments or groups, as in coro piccolo, small chorus. The violino piccolo, a smaller violin, is used by Johann Sebastian Bach in the first Brandenburg concerto, where it is to be tuned a third higher.
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Wikipedia - Glossary of Musical Terminology
Virginia Tech Multimedia Music Dictionary
ORB -- Medieval Music Glossary