Definition and background:
Deliberate upsetting of the meter or pulse of a composition by means of a temporary shifting of the accent to a weak beat or an off-beat. a play on rhythmic and metrical expectations such as giving a silence where a stressed note is expected or stressing a normally weak beat. Used extensively in the fourteenth century. A rhythm in which normally unaccented beats are stressed either through agogic or dynamic rhythm. The rhythmic result produced when a regularly accented beat is displaced onto an unaccented beat. the deliberate upsetting of the rhythm in a piece of music to make the accent fall on the weaker beat in the bar, which is not normally accented. syncopation has been used in the music of all periods, and is one of the foremost features of jazz
When a beat or a musical phrase is syncopated.
A rhythm in which normally unaccented beats are stressed either through agogic or dynamic rhythm
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Wikipedia - Glossary of Musical Terminology
Virginia Tech Multimedia Music Dictionary
ORB -- Medieval Music Glossary