Definition and background:
A style of plainchant that sets one syllable of text to one neume. A neume is a symbol that denotes two to four notes in the same symbol, thus each syllable is sung to two to four notes. This style is opposed to syllabic, in which each syllable has one note, and melismatic, where one syllable has many notes. a musical setting is neumatic if there are two to seven notes per syllable. (In practice, some syllables of a neumatic chant will likely receive only one note.) Related terms: syllabic, melismatic.
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Wikipedia - Glossary of Musical Terminology
Virginia Tech Multimedia Music Dictionary
ORB -- Medieval Music Glossary