Definition and background:
Loudness contours. A subjective impression of equal loudness by listeners as a function of frequency and sound level (dB). An increase in low frequency sound will be perceived as being much louder than an equivalent high frequency increase.
1) A unit of equal loudness for all audio frequencies. 2) The phon is numerically equal to dBspl at 1000 Hz but varies at other frequencies according to ear sensitivity to frequency.
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Wikipedia - Glossary of Musical Terminology
Virginia Tech Multimedia Music Dictionary
ORB -- Medieval Music Glossary